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Cholesterol Absorption/Synthesis

Noncholesterol Sterols/Stanol Noncholesterol sterols (NCS) are lipids that are structurally similar to cholesterol and include cholesterol precursors in humans (e.g. desmosterol) and cholesterol counterparts in other organisms: phytosterols, e.g., sitosterol and...

Hemostasis/Thrombosis

Factor V Leiden Genotype Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a genetic variant of the gene encoding the protein factor V, a cofactor in the blood-clotting process. This variant confers a hypercoagulable state and is the most common inherited risk factor for venous...

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

RBC Omega-3 Index There are two main ‘types’ of omega-3 fatty acids: those derived from plants [alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)], and those derived from seafoods [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)]. The omega-3 index...

Cardiac Stress

NT-proBNP NT-proBNP, the N-terminal fragment of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), is a highly effective diagnostic marker for heart failure and for ruling in/out cardiac dysfunction. It is secreted from cardiac ventricular myocytes in response to cardiac stress (e.g.,...

Diabetes/Insulin Resistance

Glucose Fasting blood glucose is a strong predictor of risk for diabetes and is one of the traditional diagnostic criteria for prediabetes and T2DM.2 Although the body’s main source of energy is in the form of blood glucose, prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia can...